• Pipe-Rack Considered as Main Artery of a process plant. Basically Overhead piping supported on steel or concrete bents.
  • Located in the central part with branches to the sides.
  • To be Designed, Layed out & Erected first along with electrical cable trays, drainage trenches, sewers, & roads. After which the equipment are to be placed.
  • Pipe racks carry process & utility piping and may include instruments & cable trays also.
  • Pipe rack structure is a major item and is often fire proofed. It is also an important cost factor.
  • Lot of care, planning & coordination with other groups needed as mistakes can be very costly.
  • Pipe racks are tailor-made to a particular plant.
  • Process lines are usually on a lower level, while utility lines are on the top level.
  • Instrument & electrical trays are either with utility level or on a separate topmost level.
  • Many times made of concrete or steel.
  • Pipe ways are classified by their relative elevation to grade.

  • Pipe Racks are Above ground piping supported on concrete sleepers at grade level. (Off site areas where equipment is well spaced out)
  • Trenched Piping are Below ground piping laid in connection trenches.
  • Costly and usually undesirable; unless trenches are wide, shallow and well vented, heavy gases may settle and create a fire hazard through the length of the trench.
  • For these reasons, only pump out lines, chemical sewers or chemical drain collection systems are sometimes placed in trenches and routed to a pit or underground collection tank.
  • Underground Piping : Piping direct buried below ground level. Due to costly maintenance and the usually corrosive nature of soil, this method of routing is generally reserved for sewer and drain lines.
  • In some plants, especially in cold climates, cooling water lines are buried below the frost line. This should be determined at the beginning of a job, is generally a Client request. 


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