**Table of Contents**

CHAPTER 1 :- THEORY OF FLOW IN PIPE.

CHAPTER 2 :- FLOW OF FLUIDS THROUGH VALVES AND FITTINGS

CHAPTER 3 :- REGULATING FLOW WITH CONTROL VALVES

CHAPTER 4 :- MEASURING FLOW WITH DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE METERS

CHAPTER 5 :- PUMPING FLUID THROUGH PIPING SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 6 :- FORMULAS FOR FLOW

CHAPTER 7 :- EXAMPLES OF FLOW PROBLEMS

THEORY OF FLOW IN PIPE

The most commonly employed method of transporting fluid from one point to another is to force the fluid to flow through a piping system.Pipe of circular cross section is most frequently used because that shape offers not only greater structural strength, but also greater cross sectional area per unit of wall surface than any other shape.Unless otherwise stated, the work "Pipe" in this book will always refer to a closed conduit of circular cross section and constant internal diameter.Only a few special problems in fluid mechanics (laminar flow in pipe, for example) can be entirely solved by rational mathematical means : all other problems require methods of solution which rest, at least in part, on experimentally determined coefficients. Many empirical formulas have been proposed for the problem of flow in pipe, but these are often extremely limited and can be applied only when the conditions of the problem closely approach the conditions of the experiments from which the formulas were derived.

Because of the great variety of fluids being handled in modern industrial processes, a single equation which can be used for the flow of any fluid in pipe offers obvious advantages. Such an equation is the Darcy Formula.The Darcy formula can be derived rationally by means of dimensional analysis ; however, one variable in the formula (the friction factor ) must be determined experimentally.This formula has a wide application in the field of fluid mechanics and is used extensively throughout this paper.

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