Refrigeration Systems and Applications (Download PDF)

Content :-
Preface xi

  1. General Aspects of Thermodynamics, Fluid Flow, and Heat Transfer.
  2. Refrigerants.
  3. Refrigeration Cycles and Systems.
  4. Heat Pumps.
  5. Heat Pipes.
  6. Food Refrigeration.
  7. Food Freezing.
Appendix A - Conversion Factors.
Appendix B - Thermophysical Properties.
Appendix C - Food Refrigeration Data.
Subject Index.

Refrigeration is widely used in a variety of thermal engineering applications, ranging from cooling of electronic devices to food cooling, and has a multi-disciplinary character, involving a combination of several disciplines such as mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, chemistry, food engineering, and civil engineering. During the past few decades the refrigeration industry has dramatically expanded and started playing a significant role in national and international economies. Therefore, the economic impact of refrigeration technology throughout the world has become more impressive and more important. This technology can also be used in countless ways to improve living conditions.

This is a research-oriented book and therefore includes practical features in a usable format often not included in other, solely academic textbooks. It is essentially intended for use by advanced undergraduate or graduate students in several engineering disciplines such as mechanical engineering, food engineering and chemical engineering, and as a basic reference for practicing refrigeration engineers. Theory and analysis are emphasized throughout in this comprehensive book, reflecting new techniques, models, correlations, and applications, together with various materials with the most recent information. Coverage of the material is extensive, and the amount of information and data presented is sufficient for several courses, if studied in detail. It is strongly believed that the book will be of interest to students, refrigeration engineers, practitioners, and producers, as well as people and institutions who are interested in refrigeration systems and applications, and that it is also a valuable and readable reference text and source for anyone who wishes to learn more about refrigeration and analysis.

The first chapter addresses general concepts, fundamental principles, and basic aspects of thermodynamics, psychrometrics, fluid flow and heat transfer with a broad coverage to furnish the reader with background information that is of relevance to the analysis of refrigeration systems and applications. Chapter 2 provides some useful and up-to-date information on CFCs and alternative refrigerants and their environmental impact, as well as their thermodynamic properties. Chapter 3 delves into the specifics of refrigeration systems in a broad range from system components to solar refrigeration, provided that main refrigeration systems and applications, energy and exergy analyses of refrigeration systems, and practical technical and operational aspects of refrigeration systems are also extensively discussed. Chapter 4 deals with a number of technical aspects related to heat pump systems and applications, energy and exergy analyses and performance evaluation of heat pump systems, new heat pump applications and their utilization in industry, and ground source heat pump systems and applications. Chapter 5 is about heat pipes and their micro- and macro-scale applications, technical, design, manufacturing and operational aspects of heat pipes, heat pipe utilization in HVAC applications, and their performance evaluation.

Throughout Chapter 6 presents a comprehensive coverage on food preservation and its methods, such as physical, chemical and biological, food quality, and energy use in food preservation technologies. Overall, this chapter deals with food refrigeration technology, particularly food preservation by refrigeration, food cooling systems and applications, cool and cold storage, transport refrigeration, respiratory heat generation, moisture loss in a broad perspective, effects of cooling on products and physical and microbiological changes and detailed information on how to select cooling methods, specification, energy use processing conditions, and so forth. Additionally, this gives the reader a practical historical and technological background on refrigeration and new applications in refrigeration, along with some practical examples. In addition, cool and cold storage, controlled atmosphere storage, cold stores and their operation and maintenance, control and measuring devices for practical applications, machinery and system selection for cold stores, feasibility studies of cold stores, insulation practices, energy analysis and saving techniques, transport refrigeration, cooling load calculations for the systems and products, etc. are discussed in detail. Chapter 7 provides useful information and various techniques and technical details on food freezing applications, freezing machinery, ice making systems, and freeze drying systems and applications, and their technical and economic evaluations as well as several methods for predicting freezing times of products.

Incorporated through this book are many wide-ranging examples which provide useful information for practical applications. Conversion factors and thermophysical properties of various materials, as well as a large number of food refrigeration data, are listed in the appendices in the International System of Units (SI). Complete references are included with each chapter to direct the curious and interested reader to further information.

Refrigeration has a diverse nature and covers a large number of processes ranging from cooling to air conditioning and from food refrigeration to human comfort. Refrigeration as a whole, therefore, appears complicated due to the fact that thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer are always encountered in every refrigeration process or application. For a good understanding of the operation of the refrigeration systems and applications, an extensive knowledge of such topics is indispensable.

When an engineer or an engineering student undertakes the analysis of a refrigeration system and/or its application, he or she should deal with several basic aspects first, depending upon the type of the problem being studied, that may be of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, or heat transfer. In conjunction with this, there is a need to introduce several definitions and concepts before moving into refrigeration systems and applications in depth. Furthermore, the units are of importance in the analysis of such systems and applications. One should make sure that the units used are consistent to reach the correct result. 

This means that there are several introductory factors to be taken into consideration to avoid getting lost inside. While the information in some situations is limited, it is desirable that the reader comprehend these processes. Despite assuming that the reader, if he or she is a student, has completed necessary courses in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer, there is still a need for him or her to review, and for those who are practicing refrigeration engineers, the need is much stronger to understand the physical phenomena and practical aspects, along with a knowledge of the basic laws, principles, governing equations, and related boundary conditions. In addition, this introductory chapter reviews the essentials of such principles, laws, etc., discusses the relationships between the aspects and provides some key examples for better understanding. We now begin with a summary of the fundamental definitions, physical quantities, and their units, dimensions, and interrelations. We then proceed directly to consideration of different forms of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer.

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