Types of Pipe Joints Used in Piping System

Pipes are connected with the help of joints. A variety of joints are used in an assembly of pipes. Connecting two or more pipes together is called a fitting. Various types of joints could be used in a pipe as per the requirement. Joints are also used for multiple pipe connections, and are an important component of the plumbing system. Generally, the pipe joint fitted can easily sustain the pressure created in the pipe.

Types of pipe joints Various types of pipe joints are as follows :-
  1. Threaded joint
  2. Welded joint (butt welded, socket welded)
  3. Brazed joint
  4. Soldered joint
  5. Grooved joint
  6. Flanged joint
  7. Compression joint.

Threaded Joint :-
When pipes are joined by screwing in threads which are provided in the pipe, it is called a threaded joint. In this joint, one of the pipes has internal threads whereas the other pipe has threads externally. Thethreads are also made in various pipes like PVC, CI pipes, copper pipes and GI pipes, etc.. Threaded joints are used from 6 mm diameter to 300 mm diameter pipes.

Welded joints (Butt-welded joints) :- 
It is one of the most common methods of joining pipes used in large infrastructure like commercial, institutional and industrial systems. Cost of material are low, but the labour costs are more due to the nonavailability of trained welders and fitters.

Socket-Welded Joints :- 
These are used when there is a high chance of leakage in the joints. Pipes are joined as putting one into other and welded around the joint, as shown in Fig.. Pipes having different diameters are suitable for this type of a joint. Socket-welded joint gives good results as compared to other joints.

Brazed Joints :- 
When pipes are joined with the help of molten filler material at above 840°C, it is called brazing. Brazing is done for connecting copper pipes or copper alloy pipes. It is important to note that the melting point of the parent material (pipe material) should be higher than the filler material. Brazed joints have less mechanical strength, and are preferred in case of moderate temperatures.

Soldered Joints :- 
Soldering and brazing are similar activities. In soldering, the filler material melts below 840oC. With the help of soldering, copper and copper alloy pipes are joined. During soldering, flux or metal joining material is used to prevent oxidation due to the flame. Soldered joints are suitable for low temperature areas and have low mechanical strength.

Grooved Joints :- 
When two pipes are joined together by making grooves (narrow cuts or depression) at the end of pipes with the help of sockets or couplings, such joints are called grooved joints. Due to the ease of assembly of the grooved joints, the labour cost is less. The piping system can be easily uninstalled and reinstalled frequently for maintenance . These are mostly used for fire protection.

Flanged Joints :- 
This joint is commonly used for joining pipes in pumping stations, filter plants, hydraulic laboratories and boiler houses, etc.. These joints are preferred due to easy process of assembly and disassembly, however these connections are costly. These joints can be disassembled and re-assembled when required. A pipe has flanged ends on both sides of the pipe length. Both the ends of pipes are joined at a proper level near one another. A hard rubber washer is placed between flanges and bolted. Flanges are generally fixed to the pipe by welding or threading. In certain cases, a flange-type joint is also called a lap joint. It may also be made by forging the process and machining the pipe end. There is no leakage in flanged joints even after rapid temperature fluctuations.

Compression Joints :- 
These are applied to join the pipe without any preparations. The cost of installation of these joints is very economical. The pipes having plain ends are joined by fixing fittings at their ends, and such a joint is called a compression joint. The pipe ends are joined with threaded fittings or couplings. Joints are placed properly to check the flow pressure, otherwise, leakage may occur. These fittings are manufactured from different types of material. Selection of fittings is done as per requirement.

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